Needs & Passions Research

Research into DISC behavior styles and Spranger guiding values began in the 1920s. Paula M. Kramer has been researching DISC behavior styles and Spranger guiding values since 1998. She took what she learned from other researchers and added her own findings. Paula read both of the books listed below.

Research Into Behavior Styles

William Moulton Marston did research on behavior styles and developed the DISC theory of observable behavior. Marston described DISC behavior styles in his book, The Emotions of Normal People (1928).

Moulton also developed the systolic blood-pressure test which became part of the modern day polygraph, otherwise known as the lie detector.

Under the name Charles Moulton, Marston created the cartoon character Wonder Woman. He was inducted into the Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2006.


Research into Attitudes/Values

Eduard Spranger did research on attitudes. Spranger developed his theory about six basic attitudes and  wrote about them in, Types of Men: The Psychology and Ethics of Personality (1928). Most modern researchers who use Spranger’s research now use the word “values” instead of the word “attitudes.”


Ideas To Consider

“Assessing Behavioral Styles Among Nurse Managers: Implications for Leading Effective Teams”
Timothy J. Keogh, Jennifer C. Robinson, and J. Michaell Parnell
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)
January  2019

“Overcoming Misconceptions about DISC Styles”
No Date
Extended DISC


Giving Yourself Smiles

“Ask America’s Ultimate Experts: ‘I want to feel happier!'”
by Marina Khidekel
Woman’s World
May 31, 2010


“The Healing Power of Poetry”
by Luis J. Rodriguez
The Progressive
November 2007, pages 14-15

Rodriguez was transformed from gang member and drug addict through “poetry and intellectual/political engagement.”


The Importance of Emotional Satisfaction for Success

“Factors influencing parenting in early childhood: a prospective longitudinal study focusing on change”
Andrea Waylen and Sarah Stewart-Brown
Childcare, Health and Development
Volume 36, Issue 2, pages 198-202

Researchers at the University of Bristol and the University of Warwick in England found that the key ingredient when it comes to successful parenting is being “happy in yourself”. Mothers who are “happy in themselves” are more successful as mothers. Mothers who are unhappy in themselves fail to nurture their children as well as mothers who are happy in themselves.


Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers: Runnin’ Down a Dream (Documentary)
Peter Bogdanovich, Director
Warner Brothers, 2008

“When I’m in a good place emotionally, I seem to do the best music. It wasn’t any effort at all.”
~~Tom Petty

With sales of more than 50 million records, Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers are one of the the biggest musical touring groups. Their awards include:

George and Ira Gershwin Award for Lifetime Musical Achievement

American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers’ Golden Note Award

Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame

Induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame

Billboard Century Award


“Everyday creative activity as a path to flourishing”
Tamlin S. Conner, Colin G. DeYoung, and Paul J. Silvia
The Journal of Positive Psychology
November 2016


Paula will add more research as she finds it.


© Paula M. Kramer, 2010 to the present.
All rights reserved.
Last updated May 9, 2020.